From the outset, the Japanese soldiers living in the occupied city of Nanking formed a deeply cohesive group. Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative ideas or viewpoints, and by isolating themselves from outside influences.
Army special forces groups, members from the U.
This cohesiveness among the occupying soldiers in Nanking resulted in a continuation of the inhumane acts, since it appeared as though no one had any objections to the misdeeds. Diversity in groups often facilitates group performance and also reduces group cohesiveness, which in turn increases diverse perspectives Greitmeyer et al.
Groupthink is one such pitfall of decision-making. The union also exhibited some degree of closed-mindedness with the notion that MLB is the enemy. The organization should set up several independent groups, working on the same problem. The decision was a failed attempt to gain a stronger negotiating stance against Major League Baseball.
Jay Leno or David Letterman. Skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback all were missing. The decision-making process, when undertaken by large groups of people, often produces unexpected and illogical results.
While the inhumane nature of these events in many ways defies our understanding of human nature, the isolation and cohesiveness of the Japanese forces at Nanking can help in the explanation of this barbarity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35 12The biased perceptions of the Chinese were shared by the Japanese soldiers.
The power motive as an influence on group decision making. Highly qualified and experienced politicians and military commanders sometimes make very poor decisions when in a suboptimal group setting.
Training for boat handling and amphibious landings took place at Vieques Island, Puerto Rico. The authors compare groupthink model to findings presented by Maslow and Piaget ; they argue that, in each case, the model incites great interest and further research that, subsequently, invalidate the original concept.
Some of them included: This led to a thorough evaluation of a wide range of criteria and careful weighing of associated costs and risks. Defective decision-making strategies also arise from groupthink.
How congruence between knowledge and decision rules improves team decision making and team perceptions.
Application of Groupthink to the Rape of Nanking It attempting to understand the events which culminated in the rape of Nanking, it is necessary to examine the mental decision-making which could have lead to such an unanticipated and inhumane outcome.
Some of them included: Understanding the dynamics of power and influence in organizations 2nd ed. A leader has to maintain a healthy atmosphere of divergent thinking that steers the team away from premature convergence Small, Lastly, there was the presence of self-censorship; some umpires who disagreed with the decision to resign failed to voice their dissent.
The judge, then, was doing something as an official that he would not dream of doing as a man ; and he could do it without any sense of responsibilityor discomfort, simply because he was acting as an official and not as a man.
Kennedy was deliberately absent from the meetings, so as to avoid pressing his own opinion.
Direct Pressure on Dissenters. Tolerance for nonconformity is virtually non-existent, and extreme tactics to bring dissenters into line are common-place. This was the start of press censorship in Castro's Cuba.
Sociocognitive theory[ edit ] According to a new theory many of the basic characteristics of groupthink — e. Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome.
Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative viewpoints by actively suppressing dissenting viewpoints, and by isolating. Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people, in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an incorrect or deviant decision-making outcome.
Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative ideas or viewpoints, and by isolating themselves from outside influences. Art Psychotherapy: Group Dynamics - One of the many significant concepts of group dynamics that I found to be the most interesting is the idea of how any and all aspects of the group process has the natural ability to bring up all the past relatable experiences of each individual group member.
1. An opinion or position reached by a group as a whole: "Among political women there is a clear consensus about the problems women candidates have traditionally faced" (Wendy Kaminer).
See Usage Note at redundancy. Janis suggested that groupthink tends to be the most prevalent in conditions where there is a high degree of cohesiveness, situational factors that contribute to deferring to the group (such as external threats, moral problems, difficult decisions), and structural issues (such as.
The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade on 17 April A counter-revolutionary military group (made up of mostly Cuban exiles who traveled to the United States after Castro's.Groupthink is a concurrence